2 – Self-Determination Theory: controlled versus autonomous motivation

Topic Progress:

the most comprising & leading theory
with regard to motivation research

tested over the last four decades
in empirical and experimental studies worldwide

founded by Richard Ryan and Edward Deci,
behavioral scientists, University of Rochester (NY)

Not quantity but quality
not more or less, but:

controlled motivation
= having the feeling to have no other choice
than to behave in a certain way
>> less interest and effort toward achievement; disowning responsibility for negative outcomes, blaming others such as the teacher


autonomous motivation
= a sense of choice, volition or freedom > taking responsibility
>> more engagement (Connell & Wellborn, 1991), better performance (Miserandino, 1996), lower drop-out (Valerand & Bissonnette, 1992), higher quality learning (Grolnick & Ryan, 1987), better teacher ratings (Hayamizu, 1997), enhanced persistence and perseverance etc.
>> heightened vitality, self-esteem, well-being